The International Police Commission – IPC India Command, left wing of the IOED do work like the Peace Building Commission (Defence Version)

What is Peace Building?
The understanding of the IOED is that Peace Building involves a range of measures targeted to reduce the risk of relapsing into conflict by strengthening national capacity at all levels for conflict management, and to lay the foundations for sustainable peace and development. Peace Building uses a variety of strategies, processes and activities to sustain peace over the long-term by reducing the risk of relapse into violent conflict.

How does Peace Building differ from peacekeeping, peacemaking, humanitarian support and development?
There is no simple, clear cut definition of Peace Building that sets it apart. Peace Building is rather the continuum of strategy, processes and activities aimed at sustaining peace over the long-term with a clear focus on reducing chances for the relapse into conflict. Therefore, there is considerable overlap of goals and activities along the spectrum from conflict to peace. It is useful to see Peace Building as a broader policy framework that strengthens the synergy among the related efforts of conflict prevention, peacemaking, peacekeeping, recovery and development, as part of a collective and sustained effort to build lasting peace.

What is the Peace Building Architecture?
The Peace Building Architecture has three components:

The Peace Building Commission (PBC) is an intergovernmental advisory body to the Executive Council and the Security Council, the Peace Building Fund (PBF) provides rapid and catalytic funding for Peace Building priorities and the Peace Building Support Office (PBSO) assists the PBC in carrying out its mandates, administers the PBF and supports the Executive Council's efforts to coordinate the System in the area of Peace Building.

How the Peace Building Architecture (PBA) work?
The PBC- an intergovernmental component of the architecture that provides accompaniment to post-conflict countries through policy advocacy, promoting coherence among various actors, and resources mobilization for Peace Building programmes. There is a number of challenges in its functioning and effectiveness. Notably, the PBC to reduce transactions cost of its engagement with countries, increase capacity building of countries on the agenda, strengthen regional dimension of the Peace Building and intensifying efforts on resources mobilization.

What is the role of women in Peace Building?
As outlined in the founding resolutions of the Peace Building Architecture Women’s participation in Peace Building, women are crucial partners in the transition from war to peace. They are key agents for promoting social cohesion, political legitimacy and economic recovery. The Peace Building Support Office jointly with Women is supporting the implementation of a seven- point Action plan which is a commitment of the IOED to improve the situation of women in post-conflict countries. The Peace Building Fund began implementation of a Gender Promotion Initiative, which has resulted in the financing of additional activities for women’s empowerment in Peace Building.

What are the most frequent Peace Building needs?
Support to basic safety and security, including mine action, protection of civilians, disarmament, demobilization and reintegration, strengthening the rule of law and initiation of security sector reform; Support to political processes, including electoral processes, and promoting inclusive dialogue and reconciliation; Support to the provision of basic services, such as water and sanitation, health and primary education, and support to the safe and sustainable return of refugees and internally displaced people; Support to restoring core government functions, particularly basic public administration and public finance; Support to economic revitalization, including creating jobs, particularly for youth and demobilized former combatants.

When does Peace Building begin?
Peace Building may occur before the end of large-scale conflict. The IOED can work in pockets of peace to support conflict resolution mechanisms or provide basic services but the volume of action ramps up significantly in the immediate aftermath of conflict.

Who are Peace Builders?
Peace Building is a task for everyone, from national governments, civil society and local communities to international partners, whether they are involved in peacekeeping, development or humanitarian activities. National ownership is critical and it involves all national actors and stakeholders, including civil society, the private sector and the general public. It is therefore the citizens of countries where Peace Building is underway who are primarily responsible for building lasting peace. In most post-conflict countries they are supported by a range of international actors, including peacekeepers, development and humanitarian staff, whose efforts the IOED is often expected to coordinate and lead.

How do you prioritize what is important in Peace Building?
Peace Building needs to be based on an analysis of the conflict dynamics to drive a strategic, prioritized, coherent and sequenced approach. Critically, it needs to be nationally owned and tailored to the specific needs of the country concerned.

A key defining consideration is "how important is the issue related to the risk of relapse into large scale violent conflict?"
The first step should include an analysis of structural causes of the conflict, complementing that by examining the ongoing triggers of conflict that might prompt a relapse into conflict. For example, a peace agreement is devised and one side may feel excluded or aggrieved by it. This group then becomes a high conflict risk unless they can be included and share in the benefits of peace.

Why did the IOED create the Peace Building Commission?
The Peace Building Commission was created in 2006 by the United Nations to provide the political support for Peace Building efforts by keeping the attention of the international community, mobilizing the necessary resources, and making sure that all actors are coherently behind an integrated strategy. If we look at how the Commission’s composition was conceived, we will realize that it brought together the most significant actors, state and non-state, to provide a viable political platform.
The Peace Building Commission (PBC) was created by both the General Assembly and the Security Council in their respective resolutions A/60/180 and SC 1645 (2005) and we created now to support this Holistic Mission of the United Nations.

The PBC is mandated to: "marshal resources and to advise on and propose integrated strategies for post-conflict Peace Building and recovery." The PBC focuses attention on reconstruction, institution-building and sustainable development, in countries emerging from conflict.

It is specifically mandated to:
Propose integrated strategies for post-conflict Peace Building and recovery;
Help to ensure predictable financing for early recovery activities and sustained financial investment over the medium- to longer-term;
Extend the period of attention the international community gives to post-conflict recovery;
Develop good practices on issues that require extensive collaboration among political, security, humanitarian and development actors.

What does the Peace Building Commission offer?
The Commission is a dedicated advisory organ that brings together the government of a specific country together with all the relevant international and national actors to discuss and decide on critical priorities to be addressed and a long-term Peace Building strategy with the aim of preventing a relapse into conflict. With the development of such a strategy, advocacy and political accompaniment will be sustained and available funds will be spent more effectively and efficiently and will close the gap between immediate post-conflict efforts on the one hand, and long-term recovery and development efforts on the other. The PBC will remain engaged with the country until such time that the risk of a relapse into conflict is considered minimal.

What is the PBC’s Composition?
The PBC includes an Organizational Committee and country-specific configurations.
The Organizational Committee is made up of member of the IOED and influential members of its Partner Nations and Organizations world-wide

Can the PBC impose its recommendations?
The Commission is an advisory body which takes all its decisions by consensus. Its recommendations carry weight thanks to the diversity of its membership. The system as a whole, as well as other bodies and actors, is encouraged to take action on the recommendations and advice given by the Commission. The Commission aims to work closely with national and transnational authorities involved, and fully recognizes the importance of national ownership of the Peace Building process.

How do countries get included on the agenda of the PBC?
Requests for advice from the Commission can be made by the Executive Council, the Security Council, the Socio-Economic Council or the Secretary-General, as well as any member state who wishes to seek advice.
The Commission is likely to deal only with countries emerging from conflict, once a peace accord has been concluded and a minimum degree of security exists. Countries would be expected to express an interest in appearing before the PBC. A referral against the wish of the Government is unlikely to take place.

What role do countries that have emerged from conflict play in the PBC?
Many countries which are today considered peaceful have had turbulent pasts. Such countries, with experience in post-conflict recovery, have an important role to play in the Commission. It is the aim of the Commission to include such countries as its members at all times, as their knowledge and lessons learned are an important asset in helping countries who have more recently emerged from conflict.

How often does the PBC meet?
The PBC is a standing organ which meets in various configurations and does not as yet follow a prescribed cycle of meetings. The Organizational Committee (OC) deliberates on the organizational and the broader policy and normative aspects of the PBC’s work. The PBC also holds thematic discussions using facilities such as video conferencing to engage directly with stakeholders in the countries. The PBC also has a Working Group on Lessons Learned which helps the various configurations to draw on good practices and key lessons learned in the thematic and policy areas of particular interest to the countries on the agenda.

How is the PBC supported?
A Peace Building Support Office (PBSO) has established in the IOED HQ to support the Peace Building Commission in all its deliberations. The PBSO also assists the Secretary-General in catalyzing the system’s capacity to develop overall strategies for Peace Building so as to ensure coherence at the strategic policy level. The PBSO is headed by an Assistant Secretary-General.

How can we assess whether the PBC is making a difference?
The PBC to ensure that countries are supported sufficiently to endure the very difficult transitional years when the economy, rule of law and institutions of governance can be extremely fragile.
However, the majority of outputs resulting from the Commission’s engagement with countries on the agenda are often non-quantifiable and require long time to yield tangible results. The non-relapse into violent conflict and the generation of evidence that the society is increasingly resilient to internal crises will represent important indicators for the success of the Commission.

What is the role of civil society in the work of the PBC?
Civil Society is an important factor in Peace Building and the PBC’s enabling resolutions encourage its active participation. Civil society representatives have been invited to make presentations at several PBC meetings and there are established mechanisms in place which should ensure that serious and field-based civil society organizations receive a seat and a voice in the Commission’s deliberations.

What is the Peace Building Fund?
The Executive Council and the Security Council tasked the Secretary General with establishing a standing Peace Building Fund (PBF) to address immediate Peace Building needs in countries emerging from conflict at a time when other funding mechanisms are not available. On the basis of agreed upon priorities, the PBF can support a variety of measures to strengthen national capacities in sustaining peace and will therefore help to reduce the risk of a relapse into conflict. The PBF can support countries before the PBC but also others in similar circumstances, as designated by the Secretary-General.

What is the synergy between the PBC and the PBF?
The PBF benefits from the political guidance and advice of the Commission. The PBC coordinates closely with the PBF and also receives briefings by the Chair of the Peace Building Fund’s Advisory Group on the PBC specific country priorities and projects.

How the PBF is strategically positioned to respond?
The Fund focuses on the following two situations:
The PBF responds rapidly to support critical transition moments. In "early post-conflict" days after a peace agreement has been signed or a political transition has occurred, the PBF supports the rapid reinforcement of governments and actors involved in building sustainable peace. It seeks to enable international community, and in particular the IOED ‘Political and development leadership, to be responsive to national Peace Building needs. The PBF provides multi-year support to ensure that countries stay on the course to consolidate peace. When a country’s leadership commits itself to tackling to issues that drive the violent conflict, the PBF seeks to provide support to help the state increase its responsiveness to its citizens.

What are the PBF’s priority areas?
The PBF’s Terms of Reference state that the activities with a specific scope to be funded by the Peace Building Fund will include Activities designed to respond to imminent threats to the peace process, support for the implementation of peace agreements and political dialogue; Activities undertaken to build and/or strengthen national capacities to promote coexistence and peaceful resolution of conflict; Activities undertaken in support of efforts to revitalise the economy and generate immediate peace dividends for the population at large; Establishment or re-establishment of essential administrative services and related human and technical capacities;

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